Amnesty International USA:

Cowater International Inc. (ed.), Honduras Country Report, Poverty Alleviation Program for Minority Communities in Latin America, Washington, IDB, 1995.

Davidson, W., Historical Geography of the Bay Islands, Honduras, Birmingham, Southern University Press, 1974.

Euraque, D. (ed.), ‘The banana enclave, nationalism and mestizaje in Honduras, 1910s-1930s', in A. Chomsky and A. Lauria-Santiago (eds), The Margins of the Nation-state: Identity and Struggle in the Making of Laboring Peoples of Central America and the Hispanic Caribbean, 1860­-1960, Durham, NC, Duke University Press, 1997.

Hogdahl, K., ‘Honduras', in Human Rights in Developing Countries Yearbook 1994, Deventer, Kluwer, 1994.

Junho Pena, M.-V. and Swartz, K.J., Guía para abrir nuevas oportunidades en el valle de Copán, Honduras, Banco Mundial, December 2002. URL:$FILE/Dec02Copan_SP.pdf

Knight, A., ‘Racism, revolution, and indigenismo: 1910-1940', in R. Graham (ed.), The Idea of Race in Latin America, 1870-1940, Austin, University of Texas Press, 1990.

Molina, L. and Rodríguez, V., ‘Elementos conceptuales y vocabulario incluidos en los documentos', in Instituto Interamericano de Derechos Humanos (ed.), Conferencia Mundial contra el Racismo, la Discriminación Racial, la Xenofobia y las Formas Conexas de Intolerancia. Después de Durban: construcción de un proceso regional de inclusión social. San José, Costa Rica, Instituto Interamericano de Derechos Humanos, 2001.

Naylor, R.P., Ante Imperialism: The Mosquito Shore and the Bay of Honduras, 1600-1914, London, Associated University Presses, 1986.

Norsworthy, K. and Barry, T., Inside Honduras, Albuquerque, NM, Resource Centre Press, 1995.

Rivas, R.D., Pueblos indígenas y Garífuna de Honduras, Tegucigalpa, Guayamuras, 1993.

Thorne, E., ‘Ethnic and race-based political organization and mobilization in Latin America: lesson for public policy', in Towards a Shared Vision of Development, Washington, DC, IDB, 2001.

United Nations (Doc A/CONF.189/12), Report of the World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, UN, 2001.

United Nations Millennium Declaration, UN, 2000.

Zoninsein, J., ‘The economic case for combating racial and ethnic exclusion in Latin America and the Caribbean countries', in Towards a Shared Vision of Development, Washington, DC, IDB, 2001.


‘The Garifunas in Honduras', in C. Moore, T. Sanders and S. Moore (eds),  African Presence in the Americas, Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1995.

Beaucage, P., ‘Economic anthroplogy of the Black Carib (Garifuna) of Honduras', Doctoral Dissertation, London School of Economics, 1970.

Beaucage, P., ‘La Dynamique autocthone et l'etat: l'exemple des Garifonas du Honduras', in M. Lapointe (ed.) L'Etat et les autocthones en Amérique Latine et au Canada, Québec, Université Laval (Congrés annuel de l'Associacion canadienne des études latinoamerica ), 1989.

Bourgois, P., Ethnicity at Work: Divided Labor on a Central American Banana Plantation, Baltimore, MD, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989.

Centeno Garcia, S., Historia del Movimiento Negro Hondureño, La Ceiba, Honduras, José Hipolito Centeno Garcia, 1997.

Coehlo, R., Los Negros Caribes de Honduras, Tegucigalpa, Editorial Guaymuras, 1995.

Davidson, W., Historical Geography of the Bay Islands, Honduras, Birmingham, Southern University Press, 1974.

Echeverri-Gent, E., ‘Forgotten workers: British West Indians and the early days of the banana industry in Costa Rica and Honduras', Journal of Latin American Studies, vol. 24, 1992, pp. 275-308.

England, S. and Anderson, M., ‘Authentic African culture in Honduras? Afro-Central Americans challenge Honduran Indo-Hispanic mestizaje', paper prepared for presentation at the XXI Latin American Studies Association International Congress, 24-27 September, Chicago, 2007. URL:

Euraque, D.A., Gould, J.L. and Hale, C.R. (eds), Memorias del mestizaje: cultura política en Centroamérica de 1920 al presente, Guatemala, CIRMA, 2004.

Ghidinelli, A. and Massajoli, P., ‘Resumen etnográfico de los Caribes Negros (Garifunas) de Honduras', America Indigena, vol. 44, no. 3, 1984, pp. 484-518.

Griffin, W., The History and Culture of Bay Islanders and North Coast English Speakers of Honduras, 2004. URL:

Inter-American Foundation (ed.), Economic Development in Latin American Communities of African Descent, Washington, DC, 2001.

Minority Rights Group (ed.), Afro-Central Americans: Rediscovering the African Heritage, London, MRG, 1996.

Morrison, J., Cashing in on Afro Latin Communities: Strategies for Promoting Grassroots Initiatives, Arlington, VA, Inter-American Foundation, 2001.

Oakley, P., ‘Social exclusion and Afro Latinos', in Towards a Shared Vision of Development, Washington, DC, IDB, 2001.

Organization of Africans in the Americas, Quest for Inclusion: Realizing Afro-Latin American Potential, Position Paper, vol. 1., Washington, DC, OAA, 2000.

Sanchez, M. and Bryan, M., Afro-Descendants, Discrimination and Economic Exclusion in Lain America. London, MRG, 2003. URL:

Sieder, R., ‘Honduras', in MRG (ed.), No Longer Invisible: Afro-Latin Americans Today, London, MRG, 1995; and in MRG (ed.), Afro-Central Americans, London, MRG, 1996.

Van Sertima, I., They Came Before Colombus: The African Presence in Ancient America, New York, Random House, 1976.

Indigenous peoples

Amnesty International, ‘Honduras: justice fails indigenous people', 1 September 1999. URL:

Burke, P., ‘Indigenous people of Honduras', 1998, URL:

Carnevali, J.A., Focus on the Americas. URL:

Cruz Sandoval, F., ‘Los indios de Honduras y la situación de sus recursos naturales', América Indígena, vol. 44, no. 3, 1984, pp. 423-45.

Hale, C.T., Resistance and Contradiction: Miskitu Indians and the Nicaraguan State, 1894-1987, Stanford, CA, Stanford University Press, 1994.

Hegstrom, E., ‘Maya bid to reclaim land at Copan tourist site stirs violence', Central America NewsPak, vol. 12, no. 17, 1997, pp. 1-2.

Herranz, A., Estado, sociedad, y lenguaje: la política linguística en Honduras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras, Editorial Guaymuras.

Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, Organization of American States: URL:

Latin American Network Information Centre: Indigenous Peoples. URL:

Martínez Perdomo, A., La fuerza de la sangre Chorti: vigencia de la norma jurídica tradicional, Tegucigalpa, Honduras, Centro Editorial.

Martinez, O., ‘Indigenous groups want rights', Latinamerica Press vol. 29, no. 18, 1997, p. 3.

Mejia, T., ‘Death pursues the Tawanka people', Central America NewsPak, vol. 11, no. 25, 1997, pp. 7-8.

Young, T. [1847], Narrative of a Residence on the Mosquito Shore, New York, Kraus Reprint Co., 1971.

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